1 Scientific fertilizer management. Increase the amount of organic fertilizer applied, balance the fertilization, the fruit rapid expansion period according to fruit tree yield appropriate top dressing to strengthen the K, Fe, Co, B, Zn and other mineral nutrients to supplement, so that it reaches a reasonable range, combined with spraying the leaves Spraying fertilizer on the surface caused the nitrogen content of Fuji apple leaves to be around 2% in July, which is beneficial to fruit coloring and fruit quality improvement. Fertilizer and water promote each other and are indispensable. Fruit trees have four waters in one year, namely, water before flower, water after flowering, rapid expansion, frozen water, fruiting period combined with dry conditions, and 1-2 times of water can be appropriately increased. Especially in June-July. As drought has become more serious in recent years, the orchard in our school has used a hole-sparing fertilizer and water-saving project, which has achieved good results. This is also the premise for the increase of fruit.
2 Do a good job of assisting pollination. When pollinating, we must choose a good parent and do manual pollination. This will not only ensure the fruit setting rate, but also help the fruit grow and correct the fruit, the fruit development is fast, the single fruit weight increases, the pollination time is best carried out on the opening day of the flowers, the center flower is given for each inflorescence, but the pollination needs to spend a lot of Manpower, so you should consider giving flowers during the flowering period.
3 Thinning and thinning fruit, reasonable load. Excessive amount of fruit, poor fruit quality, single fruit weight reduction, fruit quality decline, so production, strictly carry out sparse fruit thinning, control of leaf-fruit ratio, according to tree vigor, distributed the fruit evenly to each major Branches, in order to ensure balanced distribution of fruit in the nutrition, in order to improve the quality of the fruit.
4 Do a good job of pruning the tree to create a reasonable group structure. After pruning, adjusting the distribution of nutrients, adjusting the lighting conditions, and adjusting the population structure of the whole orchard, it was determined that when the coverage rate of Red Fuji apple was 61%, the direct light transmittance was 29%, and the average fruit coloring index was 85%. When the canopy coverage is 74%, the direct transmittance is 19%, the average fruit coloring index is 79%, and the amount of branch per acre should be controlled within 1.5 million. In the pruning process of fruit trees, fruit quality can be improved by appropriate pruning measures. For example, local girdling of Wangshu and Wangzhi during the fruit enlargement period can concentrate organic nutrients on the fruit and significantly increase the fruit size. Increase sugar content and promote coloration. From May to June, techniques such as cutting tipping, tipping, tipping, and pulling branches can be used to improve light conditions and facilitate fruit coloring. In winter and spring, scraping the skins on the trunk and old branches can enhance the tree activity, make the peel bright, the delicate flesh and so on. Therefore, the rational close planting, strengthening the trimming of the growing season, controlling the tree vigor and other techniques, improving the light conditions, to a certain extent, improve the quality of the fruit.
5 Strengthen pest control In the prevention and control of pests and diseases, minimize the application of chemical pesticides and actively use biological pesticides. In the control of pests, try not to use pyrethroids as much as possible, and new and highly effective biological pesticides, such as avermectin, should be used. They are highly efficient, broad-spectrum, completely low-toxicity, have a long duration of efficacy, and do not produce drug resistance, and can effectively control fleas. , Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and other pests, can replace pyrethroids, 1605, trichlorfon and other pesticides. Prevention and treatment of diseases, as much as possible with the use of Formamide, the best use of Coral Clear, 9291, bacteria poisonous and other harmless biological agents and low residual toxic agents, so as to produce pollution-free fruits.
6 Sacking bags can improve the appearance quality of fruits and reduce the pesticide residues. The bagging time should be 20 days after flowering. Strict fruit selection should be selected during the bagging process. Fruits with long fruit shape and closed ends should be selected. Strong fruit, central fruit, only 1 fruit per set. For a garden piece, it is necessary to set it all in order to reduce the number of fruit trees to be used. According to the color of the fruit tree, the fruit bag that meets the requirements is selected. The double-layer bag is better, and the coloring species should be one month before harvesting. Left and right bags are removed, and the fruits of yellow-green varieties can be set until harvested and then removed. However, there are also deficiencies in bagging, such as reduced sugar content, thinning of the skin, and spending a lot of manpower and material resources.
7 Transfer the fruit, pick the leaves, and apply the reflective film to remove the 2-3 leaves that stick to or around the fruit 20 days before the fruit matures. It is better to remove the old leaves and the parasitic leaves and increase the utilization of the direct light. To increase the degree of coloration, at the same time, the fruits that have been colored on the positive side turn the shade of the fruit to the direct sunlight side, modern fruit trees, and a silver reflective film under the tree to improve the light in the canopy and underground, so as to achieve the purpose of full coloring of the fruit. At the same time can also increase the sugar content of the fruit, red Fuji apple, reflective film in mid-September better.
8 The use of growth regulators to use growth regulators can increase the number of fruit, promote coloration, such as GA3 treatment can increase the number of fruit, ethylene can promote the coloring, the experiment, the use of mixed formulations is better, the mixed formulation is a One or more growth regulators are mixed with fertilizers, but they must be tested before use.
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