First, the types of fertilizer
1. Traumatic fertilizer 1 Gas poisoning mainly refers to too much single ammonium nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen decomposes into ammonia, in the case of poor ventilation, when the concentration is greater than 5 ml/l, the leaves will appear water-stained Spots, cells lose water and die, leaving dead spots. When the concentration of ammonia reached 40 ml/l, acute damage was caused to the tomato, resulting in necrosis of the tissue in the shoot, obvious mesophyll disintegration between stems and leaves, disintegration of chlorophyll, and spotting and massive brown lesions between veins.
2 When the concentration of fertilizer or human waste is too large, the concentration of soil solution will be too high. When the total salt concentration of the soil exceeds 3000 ml/l, the absorption of nutrients by the crop will be hindered, and the resistance to cell penetration will increase. Difficult to absorb water.
3 Fertilizer dry application of fertilizer directly to the roots of plants. In fact, the strongest root absorption capacity is the root and root hairs around the root system. The effective composition of chemical fertilizers is high, the effects are quick and fierce, and the harmful effects of dry application are very serious.
4 Organic manure is not cooked. Fresh livestock and poultry manure have not been decomposed but are applied directly to the vegetable field. Organic acids and heat are generated during the decomposition process, causing damage to the crop roots.
5 Exceeding the standard In nursery bases and fields, fertilizers or human urine are often applied excessively in excess of standards, the effective ammonia content is overloaded, soil concentration barriers are formed, burning of roots occurs, and serious dead seeds are also caused.
2. Injury-type fertilizer damage refers to the physiological damage caused by the improper balance of the ion balance in the plant due to improper fertilization. Commonly there are the following situations.
1 Ammonia poisoning Soil excess ammonium, the plants will absorb too much ammonia poisoning, affecting the normal photosynthesis.
2 Too much nitrogenous fertilizer is used in excessive nitrogenous fertilizers. In the nitrification process, nitrite accumulation often occurs and nitrous acid poisoning occurs. The roots turn brown and the leaves turn yellow. When there is surplus nitrogen, the tomato will be lacking. Calcium.
3 Antagonism If an excessive amount of phosphate fertilizer is applied, it will affect the absorption of calcium and trace elements in alkaline soil. The tomato umbilical rot is caused by the calcium deficiency of the plant, and the application of potassium fertilizer will hinder the plant to calcium and magnesium. And the absorption of boron causes certain physiological diseases of tomato.
Second, the prevention and treatment of fertilizer damage
1. According to the growth of plants, conduct soil testing and fertilization.
2. Rational use of chemical fertilizers, combined use of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers, rational fertilization according to the different needs of different fertilizers for different growth periods of tomato, and avoid the use of single fertilizer.
3. Increase organic fertilizer. There is fertilizer in the vegetable fields. During the decomposing process, organic colloids are formed. The organic colloids have strong adsorption ability to cations. When the fertilizers are applied to the soil, the cations are mostly adsorbed by the colloids, so the concentration of the soil solution does not increase. Too high, can increase the buffer capacity of soil nutrients, greatly reducing the possibility of occurrence of fertilizer damage. Under conditions permitting, biological bacterial fertilizers can be used in combination with organic fertilizers to exert their ability to fix nitrogen and dissolve phosphorus and potassium, decompose residues of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, increase the yield and quality of tomatoes, and enhance the commercial quality of fruits.
4. Improve the fertilization method, adopt stratified application, and apply full-depth methods to deepen the soil to prevent the fertilizer from being exposed on the surface. At the same time, appropriate watering should be applied during fertilization so that the fertilizer can be dissolved into the soil as soon as possible, which reduces the concentration of fertilizer and is beneficial to the absorption of tomatoes.
Author unit: Taitai Township, Taitai County, agricultural service station
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