The wheat combine harvester is a modern agricultural machine that integrates harvesters, threshers, and intermediate conveyors for traveling equipment. Its structure is more complex and its use requirements are high. Only by proper use and operation, can we fully exert its effectiveness, ensure the quality of work and extend its service life. According to inspections, a medium-sized self-propelled, piggy-backed combine harvester can replace 290 and 180 laborers, respectively, compared with manpower; the loss rate is reduced from about 12% of the artificial harvest to about 2%.
In recent years, with the continuous development of the rural economy, the social possession of the wheat combine harvester has also increased significantly year by year. It has become an important machine for wheat harvesting, but because some operators cannot use and operate it properly, the combined wheat harvester has not Can exert maximum efficiency, reduce the quality of work and shorten the service life. Therefore, the correct use of the combine harvester is particularly important.
Environmental requirements for use of combine harvesters
1. Wheat combine harvesters are generally suitable for wheat harvesting on large, flat terrain.
2. The wheat combine harvester is suitable for harvesting wheat of the same variety and maturity. Because only the varieties are the same, the wheat matures evenly.
3. According to the biological characteristics of wheat, the maturation of wheat grains is uneven on the main stem and tillers of the same wheat, even on the same ear. If the harvest is earlier, some of the wheat grain will not be mature yet will affect the yield; if the harvest is later, the matured early grain will tend to drop naturally or lose grain due to the impact of the reel hitting the wheat ears. Therefore, the harvester harvested wheat is generally selected at the end of waxing.
Preparation of land before use of combine harvester
1. View the size and shape of the plot to be processed, wheat yield and variety, natural height, planting density, maturity, and lodging conditions. Be aware of what to do, give full play to the mechanical efficiency, improve the quality of work and reduce losses.
2. Fill the horizontal trenches, deep trenches and pits of the plots so that they do not exceed 10cm; remove obstacles in the field; if they cannot be removed, clear marks should be set to avoid damaging the cutters; if there are wells, pits, etc. in the plots Artificially cut the wheat around it to a width of 1.5m in order to avoid danger.
3. Improve field access to facilitate the adoption of the harvester.
Preparation of the combine before use
1. According to the requirements of the respective user's manual, do the following work well.
(1) Check and adjust the components of the combine harvester to make it reliable. In particular, it should focus on devices with large loads, high rotation speeds, and large vibrations. Such as the header section, threshing section, and grain clearance and unloading sections.
(2) Check whether the lubricating oil in each part is increased.
(3) Check for looseness and damage of all parts, especially for parts that are subject to wear. Replace if necessary.
2. After re-installation, maintenance or repair of the wheat combine harvester to do a good job of trial operation, it is best to try a partial (receiver, threshing parts to be carried out separately), to concentrate on finding problems, and finally a full trial operation. During the trial operation, it is necessary to carefully check the operation, transmission, operation, and adjustment of each agency, and find out that the problem is solved in time.
3. After the test run, before the official harvest, select a representative plot for the trial. During the trial cut, it is possible to actually check and solve problems that have not been discovered during the test run.
4. Prepare spare parts and spare parts for common use.
Combine Harvester Field Operation and Adjustment
1. The combine harvester should enter the ground at a low forward speed, but the engine must reach the normal operating speed before the start of harvest, allowing the thresher to operate at full speed. Before the self-propelled wheat combine harvester enters the ground, it shall select the operating gear and make the stepless speed reduce to the minimum speed. When it is necessary to increase the forward speed, it shall be achieved through stepless speed change as far as possible to avoid changing gears. When the land is received, the header should be raised slowly to reduce the forward speed, but the throttle should not be reduced so as not to cause jamming of the barrel.
2. Harvester adjustments. Self-propelled combine harvester shall adjust the position of threshing gap and the position and height of the reeling wheel according to the wheat yield, dryness and wetness, natural height and lodging situation at any time in the harvesting process; Such adjustment of the machine should be carried out before entering the ground.
3. Choose a large throttle operation. Combine harvester operation should be based on the principle of maximum efficiency. Always operate with a large throttle at the time of harvest. Do not reduce the speed of the throttle to reduce the speed of advancement, because this will reduce the drum speed, resulting in reduced quality of work, and even block the drum.
4. Job selection. During the harvesting process, the wheat combine harvester should choose a reasonable operating gear based on factors such as wheat yield, natural height, and dryness and humidity. Under normal circumstances, the wheat yield per mu can be selected between the second and third crops for 300-400kg of wheat, and the first batch should be selected for the wheat yield of around 500kg. When the wheat yield is below 300kg, the ground is flat and skilled, and the wheat matures well. When you select three jobs.
5. Job width selection. Under normal circumstances, the combine harvester should be full-scale operation, but when the wheat output is too high or the humidity is too high, when the lowest-level operation is still overloaded, the cut width should be reduced. Generally, the cut-off amplitude can be reduced to 80% to meet the requirements. .
6. Dry crop harvest. When wheat has matured, has passed suitable harvesting period, and is easy to lose grains when harvesting, the reeling speed should be adjusted down properly to prevent the reeling board from hitting the wheat ears to cause grain loss, and at the same time reduce the operating speed; it can also be arranged. Harvest in the morning or the evening.
7. Cutting height and reel position selection. When the natural height of wheat is not high, a reasonable cutting height can be determined according to local customs, and the cutting height can also be adjusted to a minimum, but it is generally not less than 15cm. When the natural height of wheat is high and the wheat yield is high and moist, and when the load of the wheat combine harvester is too large, not only can the submarine work be taken, but also the cutting height can be increased to reduce the amount of feed and reduce the load. When the wheat stem is low, the reel should be adjusted to a lower position. On the contrary, when the wheat stem is high, the reel should be adjusted to a higher position.
8. Lodging crops for harvest. When the horizontal lodging of wheat is harvested, the reel can be properly reduced, but generally it should be harvested on the other side of the lodging direction to ensure that the wheat is completely separated, the feed is smooth, and the loss of wheat is reduced; the harvest of the vertical lodging crop should be The operation was reversed, but the reverse harvest required an empty return, which severely reduced the operating efficiency. When the crop lodging is not very serious, it should be harvested in both directions. When reversing the harvest, the teeth of the reel wheel should be adjusted to a forward tilt of 15 to 30, and the reel wheels should be lowered and backward; The plate teeth of the wheel are adjusted to a position of 15 to 30 degrees backward, and the reel is raised and advanced.
9. Eyes six roads, ears to hear all directions. When the operator performs the harvesting operation, it should be done with diligence, ear work, and hand work. Always observe the meter on the bridge, the flow of crops on the header, and the working conditions of the various parts. Listen carefully to the sound of the engine's barrel and other working parts. See or hear an abnormal situation should immediately stop the exclusion. When you hear the engine sound dull, the threshing drum sounds abnormal, see the engine black smoke, indicating that the drum threshing resistance is too large, should be appropriate to adjust the gap between the threshing roller, reduce the forward speed or immediately depress the main clutch off the parking, cut off the joint Harvester forward power, and then increase the throttle threshing, until the sound is normal, then reduce one operating gear or reduce the cut width, and perform normal operations.
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