In the past two years, many peanut growers all over the country have reported that the appearance of shells in peanuts has become more and more serious. In order to solve the problem, we conducted survey visits and data analysis to clarify the reasons. We will now explain this in three ways.
The characteristics of empty shell peanuts
Variety differences are mainly due to the fact that the large peanut series is prone to empty shell problems, while the small peanut pearl series is rare.
Occurrence of the geographical and soil characteristics of the main areas of Jiangxi, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong and Henan, Hebei, a small part of the area; the soil has brick red soil and yellow brown soil and other acidic or acidic soil, the active calcium is generally low, such as Qingdao Wang Minglun from the Agricultural University of China tested the soil in peanut shells in the Qixia area of â€‹â€‹Shandong Province and found that the active calcium content was a â€œmarkâ€.
The current level of yield per mu output of peanuts has generally risen from less than 200 kg to more than 300 kg. The problem of shells with low levels of low production has become increasingly prominent under high-yield conditions.
The current status of fertilization is pursuing yield. Most of the peanut planting regions use more nitrogen fertilizer, which is not conducive to nitrogen fixation in root nodules and the overgrowth of stems and leaves in the shoots; the distribution of organic manure is very small; most of the varieties applied to phosphate fertilizers are from conventional superphosphates. Calcium is converted into diammonium phosphate and ternary high-consistency compound fertilizer. This is unfavorable for the supplementation and nutritional balance of trace elements in peanut grounds.
Loss of calcium in fruit can cause peanut shell
Peanuts are hi calcium crops and require about 2.7 kg of calcium for each 100 kg of pods produced. In particular, the development of pods requires calcium to enrich the kernels in order to increase the fullness. However, peanuts are also crops with limited calcium absorption capacity. The growth of shoots and leaves in the upper part of the ground was absorbed by the young root tip of the unembedded. Due to the weak transport capacity of calcium in the phloem, the amount of calcium needed in the underground capsule after the flowering phase can not use the calcium absorbed by the root system, but mainly rely on the absorption of calcium in the soil.
Numerous studies at home and abroad have found that, during the scab phase after the fruit needle has fallen, the calcium absorbed by the root can hardly be transported into the loquat fruit, even though the underlying soil in the root system is not deficient in calcium. More than 90% of the calcium in the peanut pod formation is absorbed directly from the surrounding soil by the fruit and young fruit. This means that from the time the fruit needle enters the soil to the fullness of the kernels for more than 70 days, as long as there is a severe lack of calcium or insufficient calcium in the soil layer of the fruit, it will directly affect the formation of pods, and the rate of light kernels will decrease. The resulting reduction in production will seriously lead to the problem of empty shells in peanuts. As many peasants from all over the country have said, despite the lush stems and leaves of peanuts, the harvested pods are often not full or even empty.
Many years ago, acid soils in southern China were able to reduce the empty shell rate of peanuts through the use of lime that was both neutral and acidic and calcium supplementation. In the early 1990s, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences applied gypsum to the peanuts on the lime-scale alluvial soil in the Huangfan District. The increase in yield was also significant. Generally, 1.6 kg of peanut pods could be produced per kilogram of gypsum. In early years, foreign studies reported that gypsum is a calcium fertilizer commonly used in the United States for peanuts. Applying it directly to flowering can prevent the problem of empty shells.
There are also studies reported that the strength and ability of calcium absorption in different parts of mango fruit are different: 15.5% of fruits are taken into the soil, 59.5% of young fruit peel, 7.5% of young fruit nuts, and 1.5% of primary fruit nuts. Ren has the lowest calcium absorption intensity. Moreover, their calcium absorption capacity gradually declines with the development process of pods. As a result, the problem of calcium deficiency is more likely to occur in the later period of the scarring, and the peanuts are empty and fruit.
Soil water content, the ratio of nitrogen, potassium and calcium, magnesium and other nutrients and other factors all affect the absorption of calcium in pods. However, under high-yield conditions, the content of available calcium in dryland soils is difficult to reach a relatively high level, and calcium accumulation in pods cannot be satisfied. In order to increase the calcium content of pods to eliminate the problem of empty shells, the resistance to drought and tolerance of pods is increased. Insect pests and diseases, the application of calcium fertilizer is an effective measure to ensure high yield and stable production of peanuts. As for brown soil and other acidic acidic or acidified soils, calcium supplementation is even more necessary.
The commonly used calcium fertilizer, mainly gypsum, is calcium sulfate, which is a kind of physiological acidic fertilizer. Besides supplying peanut calcium and sulfur, it can also be used to improve saline-alkali soil. The method should be used as base fertilizer, 50 to 100 kilograms per mu. Can also be applied at flowering time, about 25 kg per mu. In addition, calcium, heavy calcium and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer can be used as calcium supplement fertilizer.
The absorption of calcium by peanut pods is actively absorbed. If 2,4-dinitrophenol is used to inhibit the calcium absorption rate of peanut pods, the inhibition rate can reach 70% to 92%. Therefore, peanuts should not use 2,4-dinitrophenol.
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