With the country's strong support for agriculture, people are increasingly aware of the importance of scientific seed selection and scientific farming. Under such a good situation, people have higher and higher requirements for excellent seed cultivation techniques. To this end, I have now talked about the relevant technologies of sweet corn cultivation for a few superficial views for your reference.
Based on years of experimental demonstration results and production practices, a set of technical points including selection of land, seed selection, field management, pest control, and harvesting of sweet corn were summarized to provide basis for high yield cultivation of sweet corn.
Sweet corn, also known as "fruit corn" and "fruit-type vegetable corn," is bright and lustrous in color, fragrant, sweet and brittle, and can be used raw or cooked. It has rich nutritional value, and contains more nutrients such as protein, amino acids, and fat. Ordinary corn is an emerging food that is rich in both nutrients and fruits. Due to its rich nutrition, unique flavor, short growing period, simple cultivation techniques, and high economic value, it has become one of the â€œthree highâ€ agricultural crops with a good market prospect. After years of practice, relevant experiments and demonstrations have been carried out according to the concept of â€œhigh-yield and high-quality productsâ€, and the key technologies for sweet corn cultivation have been summarized, providing a reference for the high yield cultivation of sweet corn.
1. Variety selection
Choose varieties with strong adaptability, disease resistance, high quality, high yield and high commodity value. Suitable varieties for planting in Baode County include Chaofeng Sweet No. 5, high protein corn, special black No. 1, and super sweet No. 102.
2. Isolate planting
In order to guarantee the edible quality of sweet corn, it must be strictly isolated from other common corn varieties when it is planted in the selected place so as to avoid reducing the quality due to the intermixing of powders. The isolation method uses spatial isolation and time isolation in production. Space isolation is better.
(1) Space isolation
It is required that no other corn varieties be planted within the range of 300 to 400 meters outside the planting area. If there are natural barriers such as forest trees and hills, the isolation distance can be appropriately shortened.
(2) Time isolation
If space isolation is not possible, time isolation (staggering the sowing date) should be adopted to avoid encountering the flowering period of other varieties. The sowing time interval of two different varieties is generally 20 to 25 days. If a large area of â€‹â€‹sweet corn is grown in pieces, the isolation standard can be appropriately reduced. In short, the principle of not meeting the two types of maize pollen.
3. Fine preparation
Since sweet corn (especially super-sweet corn) seeds generally have smaller grains, smaller grains, germinated and arched soils, and the emergence is more difficult than ordinary corn seeds, fine seedlings must be cultivated, and fine soil preparation should be adopted when planting, and the soil is loose and the soil is fertile. Drainage and irrigation convenient land. After the harvest, the former crops will be ploughed 20-30cm in time, and combined with basal fertilizers, generally 1000-1500kg of organic fertilizer per 667m2, 30-40kg of superphosphate, 20kg of potassium sulfate, 1ï½ž1.50kg of zinc sulfate or corn-specific fertilizer. 20kg base fertilizer.
4. Stage sowing
Planting sweet corn is mainly selling fresh tassels in the market or supplying processed canned food to the factory. This is totally different from growing ordinary corn. At the same time, sweet corn cannot be stored for a long time after harvest. Therefore, the planting of sweet corn should be planted in stages according to the requirements of the market and the factory's processing capacity and orders, and the early, middle and late-maturing varieties should be matched to increase economic benefits.
5. Fine sowing
3 to 4 capsules per hole, after the next kind of soil should be timely and fine smooth surface, sowing depth is slightly shallower than ordinary corn, generally about 4cm cover soil to ensure that the whole seedlings.
6. Reasonable close planting
Sweet corn is completely a commodity. Therefore, we must pay attention to the product characteristics of the ear and we cannot simply consider the yield. Ears are purchased in stages, especially for export or processing purposes, and product rates of grades 1 and 2 should be increased as much as possible. The appropriate planting density should be determined based on the requirements of the commodity and the economic benefits, and as much as possible on a per unit area. High economic income. In general medium fertility soil. With 4000 strains/667m2 is appropriate, early maturing varieties can be denser, and late-maturing varieties can be thinner.
7. Field Management
(1) Saplings and Dinglings
After emergence, seedlings should be checked in time. When the seedlings 3 to 4 leaf time seedlings, when 4 to 5 leaves when the seedlings. The principle of the fixed seedlings is to ensure that the whole field seedlings are uniform even if they are large, small, and middle.
(2) Phase fertilizer and timely cultivator
On the basis of applying basal fertilizer, early application of fertilizer, early application and replanting of panicle fertilizer ensure that the growth of sweet corn plants is all the way green. This is the key to the success of planting fresh corn, and it is also the main difference from ordinary corn planting methods. In general, 30 kg of urea is topdressed for every 667 m2, and 15 kg each is applied at the jointing stage and the big bell stage. Every time the top dressing is applied as far as possible, each time fertilization should be combined with loose soil, earth-cultivation, clearing the ditch, and weeding and weeding.
(3) Drought-proof watering
After the seedling stage and heading and flowering, timely watering in case of weather drought, spit sporulation until the harvest period, is the key period of irrigation, when the surface of the land is dry, it should be timely irrigation to prevent the lack of grain at the top of the ear.
(4) Assistant pollination
Under normal climatic conditions, corn can be naturally pollinated, but under special climatic conditions, such as continuous rain or high temperatures, or weak plant growth, artificial pollination is required. Artificial pollination time is usually before 10 o'clock in the morning, pollination method is relatively simple, as long as the pollen can be gently on the filament.
(5) Integrated pest control and weed control
a. Weed control. Usually can be combined with 3 to 4 leaf stage Miao Fei, shallow cultivator weeding; jointing stage combined with panicle fertilizer. Deep cultivator weeding. Acetochlor herbicides can also be sprayed before planting.
b. Pest control. 1 Prevention and treatment of large spot disease with 400% Keyu San emulsion 500-1000 times solution or 50% thiophanate-methyl suspoemulsion 500-800 times liquid spraying; 2 control of Mycoses with 20% speed kill Ding EC 2000-3000 3 times liquid spray; 3 to prevent corn borer, in the big bell mouth period with 50% sulfur phosphorus mixed sand in the field; 4 control of red spider with 73% of grams of emulsifiable concentrate 1000 times spray. 5 in the jointing - tasseling period of corn to prevent stalk rot, use Amethyst copper or DT spray according to the prescribed amount. The spraying time should be selected after the sunny morning dew dry or spray at 4-6 pm, the use of highly toxic, high-residual pesticides or "triple" effect of the agent is prohibited.
(6) In time
Detasseling allows the plant's limited water and nutrient concentration to be used for ear development. The bamboo shoots harvested after detasseling are bright, tender, and the ears are neat. Timely detasseling is the key to technical success. If the detamaser is too early, the parietal lobe is easily brought out; if the detasseler is too late, the nutrient is consumed too much and the emasculating person loses its meaning. Generally, the emasculation of harvested corn shoots should be best when the tassel exceeds the top non-spreading pollen; the harvesting of sweet corn tassels is best after 2 to 3 days after tassel loosening. Detasseling time is 8 to 9 am and 4 to 5 pm, which is beneficial to wound healing. In the appropriate period, usually every 1 ~ 2d castration 1, 2 or 3 times to finish.
(7) except for ear
In order to produce high-quality, high-yield spikes, extra spikelets must be removed, ie, only the largest ears remain. Sweet corn leaf area is small, in order to ensure adequate nutritional area, delivery can be retained without removal.
8. timely harvest
Generally in the grain water content is
66% ~ 71% (milk ripening) harvesting is appropriate. In the production practice, the harvest period of sweet corn has a great influence on the quality and nutritional quality of its products. Premature harvest, less grain content, and not too good taste Harvested too late, the peel hardens, losing the unique flavor of sweet corn. In general, the appropriate harvesting period is suitable for 17 to 23 days after silking; if it is used for processing canned food, it can be harvested as early as 1 to 2 days; for selling fresh ear, it can be harvested for 1 to 2 days, and the harvesting period is 6 days. about.
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