Bisporus sp. fermented soil and other production methods

At present, foreign factory production of mushrooms uses saturated peat, good water holding, and large porosity peat as cover material, with a high yield per unit area. There are roughly five types of overburden materials for domestic use, namely coarse and fine soil, mixed soil, river muddy soil, fine muddy soil, and fermented soil. Fine muddy soil and fermented soil are two kinds of earth-covering materials that are simple to produce and have good earth covering effect, which are developed according to the current mushroom cultivation methods and rural conditions in China. These two earth-covering materials have large saturated water content, and are better Water holding capacity, large porosity, and moderate amount of organic matter are the most desirable artificial mantle materials. The methods of manufacture are as follows.
(1) The fine muddy soil is a mixture of fine mud and earthworms in a certain proportion to change the physical properties of the soil so that the earth covering of the mixed material not only has a large saturated water content, but also Large porosity and water holding capacity. After the soil is covered with soil, the mycelium crawls fast, and the storage capacity of the soil mycelium is large. The mushrooming is early and the tide is fast, which has obvious effect on increasing production. Fine muddy soil is easy to make and easy to make. The production techniques are as follows:
1 Preparation of fine mud: 8 to 10 days before soiling, dig and remove the clean vegetable garden soil with no grassroots or sundries 30 cm below the surface and sifted through a sieve of 27 mesh per 10 cm. The sieved mud is referred to as fine mud, and the unscreened mud is referred to as soy bean soil (for later soil fill). Fine mud and soybeans need to be dried.
2 Processing and ratio of fine mud and muddy: In order to prevent the breeding of brown bacteria and brown rot in the soil, 5 to 6 days before earthing, the fine mud shall be sterilized, and the formaldehyde sterilization method may be used. The wolfberry should be fresh, mildew-free, soaked in sunlight for two days, then exposed to sunlight for two days and then soaked in lime water at pH 10 for 24 hours. Two days before earth-covering, earthworms still need to be treated with insecticide. Spray 0.5% dichlorvos solution evenly on the earthworms. Mix well and cover them with a film to cover the smoke for 12 hours. Then uncover the film and let the dichlorvos evaporate. On the day before the earth-covering, the mixture of wolfberry and fine clay was weighed in a 1:24 weight ratio and mixed with 1%-2% lime powder. Then cover the soil with a half dry and semi-humid, can be used for mushroom bed the next day. The cultivation area of ​​111 square meters requires 3,000 kg of fine mud, 125 kg of dried oak and 50 kg of lime.
(2) Fermented soil Fermented soil is made by adding a certain amount of dry cow (pig) manure and other substances to the soil. Under certain temperature conditions (July and August), the physical properties and certain substances of the soil are obtained through anaerobic fermentation. The content changes so that it becomes a covering material with good covering characteristics. Fermented soil contains an appropriate amount of organic matter, has a large saturated water content and a large porosity, and has a good water holding capacity, making labor saving, simple, and the rate of increase in production is 10% to 15%. The main points of its production technology are as follows:
1 Tilting fermentation: Under natural conditions, soil and organic matter are mixed, and anaerobic fermentation is effectively carried out. There is a certain requirement for the natural temperature of the outside world. The requirements for soil-turning fermentation should be carried out in July and August. In a field where the wheat or rapeseed is behind or close to the source of the water, take a small piece of land and cultivate 111 square meters of mushrooms and take 15 square meters. The land to be fermented is required to be loose farmland, dig 25-30 cm deep, tap the clay and tap it, try to make it without mud, and then add crushed dry cow dung 125-150 kilograms, wheat husk or glutinous rice 200 Kilograms, lime 10 kg, superphosphate 20 kg, mix these substances and soil well, then water, the water surface is about 5 cm higher than the fermented soil, and then covered with a layer of plastic film, from the warming effect, 2 to 3 days later It can be seen that the bubble has turned up.
2 Bauxite: Its role is to allow the fermented soil to fully and evenly ferment. When the soil is soaked, it is required to turn the above soil to the bottom, the soil below is turned to the top, the upper and lower soils are mixed and mixed well, and the agglomerated mud is to be crushed. Don't let the water go away. The first bauxite is generally performed on the seventh day after the start of fermentation, and the second bauxite is performed again in seven days. Measure the pH of the sludge in the fermentation tank before the second time. If the pH is less than 8, add some lime and adjust the pH to 8. If there is a lot of blistering during the fermentation, then you can do it twice. The entire fermentation stage generally takes about 30 days. If it is sandy soil, the fermentation time can be increased by 3 to 5 days. Water should always be 5 cm above the surface of the fermented soil during fermentation.
3 Take the soil: After the soil has been fermented, put the water into the field and let the surface of the fermented soil have cracks. When people can walk on the soil, they can be excavated. After the fermented soil is taken out, it must be crushed when it is sun-dried and semi-wet. The diameter of the broken soil particles should not exceed 1 cm. After cracking and drying, it must not be stored in ridges if it is not sun-dried. Otherwise, it will breed miscellaneous bacteria.


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