The key areas for China's implementation of the dairy processing industry's development strategy are targeted at key technologies and equipment that restrict the development of China's dairy industry, carry out scientific and technological research based on the principles of integration of introduction and digestion and independent innovation, strive to achieve breakthroughs in the following technologies and equipment, and promote the development of dairy products in China. Industrial technological progress.
1. Key technologies for dairy processing (1) Membrane separation technology Membrane separation technology has the advantages of small environmental pollution, low energy consumption, no need for additives, and avoidance of heat damage to products, as well as the advantages of filtering and concentrating or separating materials at the same time. Making it show more and more practical value and broad application prospects in dairy processing.
At present, the application of membrane separation technology in developed countries in dairy products mainly includes: 1 The application of reverse dialysis technology in concentrated whey; 2 Nanofiltration technology in the whey desalination and concentration, recycling process water, circulating alkaline and acidic cleaning solution , Concentration and purification of sugar, protein hydrolysate and fermentation broth; 3 ultrafiltration technology in the application of protein concentration, separation and purification; 4 microbial filtration technology in the removal of microorganisms, spores, viruses and antibodies; 5 electricity Membrane filtration is used in the selective separation and purification of charged components (such as biologically active proteins, peptides and other small molecular weight components with similar molecular weight but different charge), hydrolysate treatment, and recovery of lactoferrin.
After 30 years of development, China's membrane separation technology has made great progress in the basic theory and application of membranes. Some large dairy companies have used membrane technology in raw milk to remove microorganisms, spores and viruses in milk, and membrane technology for the production of whey protein, but in China, the concentration and standardization of protein in milk by membrane technology On the other hand, there are certain gaps in the devices, materials, and components of the membrane from abroad.
(2) Biotechnology Biotechnology is one of the important contents of the modern technology revolution, including genetic engineering, cell engineering, enzyme engineering, fermentation engineering, and biochemical engineering. At home and abroad in recent years, the application of biotechnology in dairy products mainly includes the use of genetic engineering technology to transform strain microorganisms, the use of engineered bacteria to produce special enzyme systems, and the use of biotechnology to produce immune milk.
(3) Cold sterilization technology Cold sterilization technology is a kind of sterilization technology that has been studied in recent years. Because the temperature of the food does not increase or increase very low during the sterilization process, it is not only beneficial to maintain the physiological activity of the functional ingredients in the food, but also helps maintain its color, aroma, taste and its nutritional components.
At present, high-pressure processing technology, high-voltage pulse electric field sterilization, ultrasonic sterilization, antimicrobial enzyme sterilization, microwave sterilization technology, magnetic sterilization, induction electronic sterilization, radiation sterilization, pulse light sterilization, ultraviolet sterilization, ozone sterilization, resistance sterilization in the dairy industry Get varying degrees of research and application.
At this stage, China's sterilization technology is mainly focused on thermal sterilization. Pasteurization and ultra-high temperature sterilization technology are the main sterilization technologies used in China's dairy processing industry. Other sterilization technologies have carried out some research in China, but mainly in the laboratory. At the stage, it was not applied in the production area like the developed countries.
(4) Detection technology The development of the dairy industry requires effective detection techniques for the detection of dairy products, especially for the detection of active substances or toxins that contain little but significant impact in milk. In foreign countries, ultrasonic technology, biosensors, immunology techniques and high performance capillary electrophoresis analysis technology have been applied to detection and on-line detection.
The on-line detection of dairy products in China is still in its infancy. Although some foreign production equipment has been introduced and research and development has been carried out in China, it has not been well digested and absorbed advanced technology from abroad. Relatively speaking, the detection level is relatively low.
(5) Rheological analysis technology Rheological analysis technology can enable the technicians to fully understand and control the impact of each production step on the products and the operation of the equipment, and become an important means for dairy scientific research and improve the production of dairy products. Key technical measures. The research and application of our country in this field has only just begun.
(6) Freeze-drying technology It can effectively prevent oxidative deterioration of heat-sensitive substances, prevent surface hardening of products, enhance rehydration, and maximize the original quality of foods. Immunized milk and its products should use this processing technology.
In China, it is mainly used in freeze-dried preservation of starter, and now some immune milk is produced by freeze-drying technology.
2. Key equipment for dairy products processing (1) Dairy product concentration equipment In the production of milk powder, the multi-effect evaporator is widely used in the developed countries to concentrate milk, but only single-effect and double-effect evaporators are used in China. In the production of liquid milk, developed countries and enrichment equipment are also more advanced than our country. For example, advanced flash evaporation is not available, and only a few large dairy companies in China use this equipment. Therefore, it is imperative to reform the evaporation equipment of old enterprises in China. This will not only save energy, reduce costs, but also have an important role in improving product quality.
(2) The application of a homogenizer homogenizer in dairy products breaks the fat globules and not only improves and improves the quality of dairy products, but also prolongs the shelf life of dairy products. Although China's homogenizer is widely used, there is still a certain gap between the equipment's stability and foreign ones, and there is no small homogenizer used in raw milk testing in China.
(3) High-temperature short-term sterilization and ultra-high-temperature instantaneous sterilization methods and equipment for production of dairy products in aseptic production lines are widely used in China, but basically all of them are introduced into production lines. Although some companies have researched and developed aseptic production equipment, the quality and performance of these products are very different from those of foreign products, and there is no research and development of aseptic production equipment.
(4) The research and development of automatic inspection of raw milk for testing equipment and testing equipment and on-line testing equipment for special dairy products has just started in China. Most of the existing rapid detection equipment are imported from abroad, and the price is high and the quantity is small. At present, there are less than 10 sets of rapid testing equipment for the total number of raw milk bacteria in China. There are still deficiencies in the comparison of fat measurement equipment in raw milk automatic inspection with foreign ones, so the adoption is less, and most companies are still adopting traditional classic detection methods.
(5) Powdered milk production equipment There are more domestically produced equipments for milk powder production in China, but there are still big gaps between the secondary drying equipment and instant spray equipment and the international level, which will affect the fast-dissolving performance of products and should be used as R&D in the future. Focus.
(6) Small cheese processing equipment The production of cheese is one of the key areas for the development of dairy products in the future in China. Since there is very little cheese production in China, there is no domestically produced cheese production equipment. Therefore, it is of great significance to speed up the research and development of cheese production equipment for the introduction and utilization of foreign equipment and technologies, and to develop advanced equipment with Chinese independent property rights.
Author: Northeast Agricultural University School of Engineering
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