Chayote has been distributed in the southern provinces, but due to the difficulty in storage and transportation of seeds and the high technical requirements for reproduction, it was rarely cultivated in the north. At present, success has been introduced in various provinces and cities in North China. Its cultivation methods in the northern region are now described as follows:
1. Biological characteristics
Chayote is a short-day plant, warm and happy, high temperature resistance, more shade-tolerant, the temperature above 20 Â°C to normal growth, growth temperature is suitable for 20 Â°C ~ 23 Â°C. Ground temperature is below 5Â°C and the roots are dead. Above 35Â°C, growth is significantly inhibited. Chayote leaves are large and evaporate vigorously, requiring more water, especially in the high temperature period of July to August, to ensure high air humidity and soil moisture. The chayote vines are highly branched, with many fruits and vines. As long as the water and fertilizer are sufficient, Ziman and Sun vines will see the leaves sitting in the melon, and there will be few vacancies.
2. Cultivation time
General live broadcast in late April, August can be listed on the market. When growing in greenhouses or in greenhouses, they can be nursed or broadcast live from late February to early March.
3. Nursery method
There is only one seed in the chayote fruit, and the seed coat is connected to the pulp and is not easy to separate. After the seeds are peeled off, they are easy to dry and cannot germinate.
The commonly used method of germination is to use a sharp knife to cut along the groove at the top of the guava, so that the cotyledons can be easily withdrawn, and the germination can be promoted. The seeds can be directly sowed on the planting hole, covering the loose soil for 2 to 3 centimeters, and the melons buried in 1/3. Among them, 2/3 were exposed outside the soil and urged to wear. After the seedlings grow out, as long as the leaves are not seriously wilting, they are generally not watered anymore, so as to prevent the rot of the seed melons or the seedlings to grow up. When the seedling height is 20 cm, it can be planted.
Each acre colonization 25-30, 5 meters 5 meters row spacing. Dig a cylindrical planting pit with a pit depth of 70 cm and a diameter of 1 m. Apply 25 kg of organic fertilizer, 5 kg of plant ash, and 2 kg of superphosphate to each pit. Mix thoroughly, put seedlings, water and fill soil.
5. Field management
Chayote leaves are large and evaporate vigorously, especially in the high-temperature period from July to August, to ensure high air humidity and soil moisture. Poor growth during drought, but water accumulation in the rainy season is also easy to rot.
(1) Water and fertilizer management. In open field cultivation, watering should be controlled before June. After entering July, the growth of plants should be accelerated. We should keep the soil wet after planting for 1 time, and then apply fertilizer once a month. When fertilizing, a circular fertilization ditch is digged at a distance of 60 cm from the plant, and 5 kilograms of human excreta, 1 kg of superphosphate, or 2 kg of compound fertilizer is applied to each plant. The fertilization distance is further away as the plants grow.
(2) timely scaffolding. Chayote climbing is very strong, and each side can germinate lateral branches, so it should be timely scaffolding. It is best to build a 2.5 to 3 meters high flat scaffolding.
(3) Insulation over winter. Chayote does not open winter in the north. For perennial cultivation, after harvesting, the melon vines can be kept about 3 meters, placed on the base of the plant, poured into frozen water when winter, covered with wheat straw insulation, and allowed to overwinter in an environment above 5Â°C.
6. Harvesting and Storage
Chayote can be generally 80 days after sowing, flowering, 15 to 20 days after flowering can be harvested, generally weighing 0.2 to 0.3 kg of single melon harvest is appropriate.
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